The Tulip Driven Life Podcast

Tuesday, April 9, 2019

Just Gospel Conference Shows Breakdown of Conservative Denominations



Wow. Friends, I have no doubt that this conference is going to show that prominent professors/theologians/pastors in the SBC, PCA, OPC, and ARP, among other denominations, have lost sight of the heart of the gospel. "Just Gospel" is going to be a coming out party of redefining the Gospel by claiming that much of the evangelical church in the United States hasn't really had the Gospel for, I don't know, probably at least 60 years.

Irwyn Ince, last year's PCA GA Moderator, along with SBC President J.D. Greear, are at this shindig. Leon Brown, now of the ARP but also still with Covenant College I believe, as well as the Edmondson's of the OPC, are also involved.


Of course, I agree the church has lost the heart of the Gospel, but what's going to be proclaimed here, if it is remotely in keeping with what these men and women have been saying, isn't going to be remotely close to "just" the Gospel.

Conservative churches will have to speak out against this. We need to pray for faithfulness in our churches, and we need to be faithful and bold at this time. That is the loving thing to do, first toward our Lord and Savior, and then also toward those who oppose the truth of the cross, that they may see their grievous error and repent, and also to simply protect the flock from false and/or dangerous teachers.




http://justgospelconference.org/?fbclid=IwAR0O6JMmeiWJRzOQ9gj6-AidPlYMQawrxK5iWpaVUr2SevGvvVVSkN36Kk0

Wednesday, April 3, 2019

Summary of Maxwell's Outline of Christian Worship




Maxwell begins his book, Outline of Christian Worship, by addressing primitive worship and its origins and growth. He defines worship as consisting “of our words and actions, the outward expression of our homage and adoration, when we are assembled in the presence of God.” The words and actions are governed by the knowledge of God and the human resources we bring to worship, and Christian worship is distinct in that it is directed to the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ. Because the Church has been accompanied by the Holy Spirit in her worship down through the ages, taking a historical approach to worship is valid.
Maxwell notes that in the early Church four things stand out, namely that Christians for a time continued to worship in the synagogues and in the Temple, that they shared a common meal known as the Love Feast, and following that feast they celebrated the Lord’s Supper. Finally, they would then prophesy and/or speak in tongues, though this and the Love Feast/Agape ceased in the early church (by the middle of the 2nd century). Maxwell says that synagogue worship is the pattern primarily for NT worship, and that temple worship had little impact on the church because most Jews of the Dispersion had never seen temple worship and the Gentiles knew little of it. The Temple was then destroyed forty years after Christ, but the synagogues remained, and in fact the synagogues emerged because of the Jewish Dispersion in an attempt to keep the Jewish life and faithfulness to God in a foreign land with pagans.
The focus of synagogue worship, where Jesus would meet for worship and Paul would visit as well, was to hear the Law read and expounded, first in Hebrew and then in the common tongue. Singings and prayers would occur around this. As the NT was recorded and received as canon, the Gospels took prominence and psalms as well as new hymns were composed for worship in Christian churches. The Church centered its worship around Christ, and worshiped on the Lord’s Day, Sunday, the day of His resurrection, culminating in the Lord’s Supper. Maxwell concludes this section stating that “the typical worship of the Church is to be found to this day in the union of the worship of the Synagogue and the sacramental experience of the Upper Room; and that union dates from New Testament times.”
Maxwell then addresses the Last Supper, and explains it as the Kiddush rather than the celebration of Passover, where Jewish males would gather regularly to prepare for the Sabbath or a festival. This in effect would make it a pre-Passover meal, associated with Passover but not Passover itself. Kiddush was celebrated weekly, not unlike the early churches’ frequent celebration of the Lord’s Supper, whereas Passover was celebrated but once per year. Worship around AD 150 or so followed this general pattern:
The Liturgy of the Word:
Lections from the Prophets, and the Epistles and Gospels (called
'Memoirs of the Apostles')
Instruction and exhortation based upon the lections
Common prayers, apparently in litany form
Psalms and hymns also probably had a place
The Liturgy of the Upper Room:
Kiss of Peace
Offertory : Collection of gifts for poor
Bringing in of the Elements
Prayer of Consecration :
Thanksgiving for creation, providence, and redemption
Memorial of Passion (later known as Anamnesis)
Oblation of gifts with self-oblation
Invocation of the Word and Holy Spirit to bless the gifts of
bread and wine (later known as the Epiclesis)
Intercessions
People's Amen
Fraction
Communion
Dismissal
After the Apostles, the first bit of info still extant concerning liturgy comes from Clement of Rome’s letter to the Corinthians in AD 96, where a well-ordered prayer is seen, showing this was a format likely used in the Church at that time. Offering of oblations/alms is mentioned, as well as the sanctus/“holy holy holy, Lord of hosts, every creature is full of thy glory.” The Didache of around 130-140 AD indicates that the Lord’s Supper was celebrated on Sunday, and that Wednesday and Friday were fast days. Justin Martyr around 140 made similar notes. Maxwell notes that early worship kept a balance between the sacramental and Scriptural elements, noting that both reading and instruction in Scripture and the reception of the bread and wine were “integral parts of the rite. Without either it was incomplete.” Also of note, the deacons distributed the bread and wine. Only around AD 200 and after do we see Vigils/midnight services in preparation for the eucharist, and later the observance for commemorating martyrs.
Turning to the 3rd and 4th centuries, Cyprian is the first to mention the Sursum corda, the intro to the prayer of Consecration. The salutation of the minister greeting the saints emerges, and use of the Lord’s Prayer is also seen. More signs of respect emerged especially when the Bible was carried from the Holy Table to where it was to be read, and when the elements were brought to the Holy Table. Maxwell notes this pattern during the 3rd and 4th centuries:
The Liturgy of the Word:
Lections: Law, Prophets, Epistles, Acts, Gospels, Letters from
bishops
Psalms sung by cantors between the lections
Alleluias
Sermon or sermons
Deacon's litany for catechumens and penitents
Dismissal of all but the faithful

The Liturgy of the Upper Room:
Deacon's litany for the faithful, with diptychs (lists of names) of
living and dead
Kiss of peace
Offertory : Collection of alms
Presentation of elements
Preparation of elements and admixture of water to wine
Sursum corda
Consecration Prayer:
Preface : Thanksgiving and adoration for creation, &c.
Sanctus
Thanksgiving for redemption
Words of Institution
Anamnesis
Epiclesis
Great Intercession for living and dead
Lord's Prayer
Fraction
Elevation 'Holy things to the holy' and Delivery
Communion of all in both kinds, each communicant replying Amen;
during reception Psalms xliii and xxxiv were sung by cantors
Post-communion Thanksgiving
Deacon's litany and celebrant's brief Intercession
Reservation of bread only, for sick and absent
Dismissal

Maxwell notes that these services were probably 3 hours in length, with worship being responsive and co-operative. Maxwell adds that formulas in words and similar structure emerged among the churches as bishop passed down the way things were done to younger presbyters, who passed it down to the next generation of presbyters, etc. Church plants would often follow the pattern of their mother church. Of note is that the deacons would be involved with distributing the elements of the Lord’s Supper and would even say certain things in the liturgy, along with the Presbyters and bishop. The Church Order of Hippolytus reflecting Roman liturgy was also discovered, and had some similarities and a few differences with more Jewish Christian services.
Maxwell then discusses the so-called Clementine Liturgy of c. A.D. 350-380, to give an example of an Eastern Liturgy and particularly the Syrian Church in the city of Antioch. This was recorded and unaltered so it is a very valuable source. The general pattern was:  
The Liturgy of the Word
[Prayers : Litanies, &c. ?]
Lections from Law, Prophets, Epistles, Acts, Gospels, interspersed
with psalms sung by cantors
Sermons
Dismissal of catechumens, &c. ; four classes in all, after a separate
deacon's litany and bishop's prayer of blessing has been said
for each class

Liturgy of the Upper Room
Deacon's litany and bishop's prayer for the faithful
Salutation and response
Kiss of Peace, with words and response
Offertory: Ceremonial washing of bishop's and presbyters' hands
Presentation of elements at Holy Table by deacons
Vesting of celebrant in a 'splendid vestment'
'Fencing' of Table by chief deacon
Sursum corda, preceded by salutation
Consecration Prayer:
Preface: Thanksgiving for Creation and Providence (very long)
Sanctus
Thanksgiving for Redemption
Anamnesis : Words of Institution
Memorial and Oblation
Epiclesis
Great Intercession
[Lord's Prayer?]
Deacon's litany and bishop's prayer
Elevation: 'Holy things, &c.', with response
Gloria in excelsis (Luke ii. 14 only)
Benedictus qui venit (Matt. xxi. 9, and the words, 'God
is the Lord, and hath appeared unto us')
Delivery: 'The Body of Christ; 'The Blood of Christ: the cup of
life'
Communion, while Psalm xxxiv is sung
Deacon's Exhortation and Bidding
Bishop's post-communion, thanksgiving, and intercession
Bishop's prayer of blessing
Dismissal of people by deacon

            It appears that lections/readings were used to start service and were quite long. They were drawn from Scripture in the order of the Law, historical books, Job and the Wisdom books, the Prophets, Acts, Epistles, and Gospels. Here as in the rest of the Church up to this century, the men sat on one side and the women on the other, and here we see that the deacons assisted them to their seats and even helped with reading of the lections (though the congregation would stand during or after the reading of Scripture in solemn silence). The church in the east was often a basilica with apse. At the conclusion of the Liturgy of the Word and prior to the Liturgy of the Upper Room (as Maxwell divides worship into these two main heads), those not entitled to take part in the Liturgy of the Faithful were dismissed by a deacon, which included catechumens, those possessed of evil spirits, candidates for baptism undergoing advanced instruction, and those under discipline (this dismissal was practiced in the Western church as well). In the Eastern church at this time, the deacon actually fenced the table. The deacons bring the elements to the Holy Table, the presbyters stand on the right and left of the bishop, and the bishop prays in silence, puts on a splendid vestment, and “standing at the Holy Table facing the people, makes the sign of the cross on his forehead, and salutes the people.” The Bishop praises God and recounts His great works, down through redemptive history, including types and shadows of the covenant, pointing to Christ. The Bishop prays for all the people and all the Church all over the world, giving all the glory to God. After the prayer likely the Lord’s prayer was recited. The bishop after a brief litany from the deacon and after he says “Let us attend!” elevates the Bread and the Cup in sight of the people, and like the Western Church says, “Holy things to the holy,” and the people answer, “There is one Holy, one Lord Jesus Christ; unto the glory of God the Father, blessed forever. Amen.” More hymn-singing followed and then the bread was broken and distributed by the bishop, while the deacons distributed the wine, and the people came forward to the steps of the apse or sanctuary to receive. Psalm 34 was sung during communion, where the words “O taste and see that the Lord is good” has special meaning. The deacon concludes things with prayer and dismissal. Maxwell notes that in all this the Real Presence of Christ is at the fore, and throughout the services Scripture was preeminent, seen in the responses, psalms, hymns, lections, exposition, etc. Maxwell notes that there was a didactic element to the whole service, which is “essential to intelligent participation in the holy Mysteries,” and characterized worship in the early church.
             The Eastern Rites in the 5th and 6th centuries were similar to what we have just examined, though they did build upon that foundation. Here Maxwell gives a helpful breakdown of the classification of the rites of Christendom under the names of the three great patriarchates, Antioch (Syria), Alexandria, and Rome, not necessarily because they originated there but they do reflect the usage in those regions by the 5th century:

1.       ANTIOCH.
a.       The Apostolic Constitutions, Books II and VIII
b.       The Byzantine rite (Constantinople)
                                                              i.      Liturgy of St. Basil
                                                            ii.      Liturgy of St. Chrysostom
c.       The Jerusalem rite
                                                              i.      Liturgy of St. James
                                                            ii.      All other Syrian rites
                                                          iii.      The Persian rites (Nestorian)
2.       II. ALEXANDRIA.
a.       Sarapion
b.       The Liturgy of St. Mark
c.       All other Egyptian and Ethiopic rites
3.       III. ROME.
a.        The early Roman rite
b.        The Gallican rites (All the non-Roman Western rites)
c.        The Lutheran, Reformed, and Anglican rites

Within each type there was still some fluidity to the liturgy. Prayers were still often extemporaneous. All liturgies derive from one of these original three, however, and soon in the following centuries we will see that all liturgy became uniform, with a book of prayer being followed very carefully, etc. The lection readings also varied during the 4th and 5th centuries with some having more and some having less. Creeds in the 6th century onwards were found in the Liturgy of the Faithful in the East, associated with the Offertory or Communion. A sanctuary screen emerged especially in the 4th century, dividing the apse from the nave. This became a screen that was decorated with pictures of Christ, Mary, Evangelists, Apostles, and saints. Pictures were known as icons, and the screen itself was the iconostasis. Communion by the 5th century was not observed every Sunday. Music also began to emerge, and choirs, with elaborate songs that came to represent all the people. In general by the 5th century things became much more ornate and elaborate, even where the Bible was ceremonially blessed and kissed by the people as it was carried forward in a train of ministers and acolytes carrying crosses, lights, and incense. Intinction emerged in the East particularly after the 4th century. Elaborate symbolism began to dominate worship services, and in some places emotionalism replaced the intellect and the sermon in some locales faded into the background. Maxwell goes a long way in defending elaborate symbolism, referring to even Puritan John Bunyan who said that there was an Eye-gate as well as an Ear-gate to the City of Mansoul. Maxwell concludes this look at the East noting that they, despite embracing mystery in their worship, did translate the liturgy into the language of the community using it, so that we find Greek, Syriac, Coptic, Ethiopic, Persian, Slavonic, Latin, and other languages.
In the next chapter, Maxwell covers the Liturgical forms in the West, from A.D. 500-1570. He notes that the groundwork is the same as that of the East, emerging from the Synagogue and the Upper Room, and fell into the divisions of the Liturgy of the Word and the Liturgy of the Faithful. In the West there was many more changeable parts (called “propers”) than the East, including various readings and psalms. From 500-900 there were the Roman rite and the Gallican rite, which spread over Europe and varied in its use locally. Under Pepin and Charlemagne the Gallican rites were suppressed, but by that point the remaining Roman rite of the 10th century was colored with Gallican content. The Roman rite ascended from 900-1520, where things were still not absolutely set in stone. 1520 saw the first Lutheran masses in Germany, modified from the Roman liturgy.
The Gallican rite grew from more barbarous people outside of Rome and incorporated the people in worship with responses and music. The deacon directed the devotions of the people, lead in litanies, and ministered the Cup at communion. The Lord’s prayer was either recited by all or at least all the ministers. The Gallican rite was more “sensuous, symbolical, and dramatic” than the Roman, and much longer. Its liturgy in the late 7th century in France is seen below:
 The Liturgy of the Word
Ingressa or Officium
Celebrant's salutation : Do-minus sit semper vobiscum, and response
Kyries
Benedictus (Luke i. 68-79) or Gloria in excelsis
Collect
Prophecy or Old Testament Lection
Lection from Acts or Epistles
Benedictus es ('Blessed art thou, O Lord God of our fathers') or
Benedicite
Gospel (Procession with lights, and Gloria tibi, Domine)
Chant Tersanctus or Kyries
Sermon or Homily
Deacon's litany
Dismissal of catechumens

The Liturgy of the Upper Room
Offertory : Collection and preparation of elements
Admixture (of water with wine)
Psalm sung throughout antiphonally
(Prayer of the Veil) (Litany of the Faithful)
Reading of diptychs
Collect after the names
Kiss of Peace, and collect for peace
Salutation and Sursum corda
Prayer of Consecration :
Contestatio or Immolatio (i.e. Preface. Long, diffuse, varied,
always a proper)
Sanctus
Collect (Collectio post sanctus to connect Sanctus with Words of
Institution really the Anamnesis)
Words of Institution
Post mysteria (Collect as Epiclesis)
Fraction (into nine pieces in form of cross) :
Collect : post secreta
Antiphon sung meanwhile
Commixture (of bread and wine) also takes place here
Lord's Prayer (with protocol and embolism)
Celebrant blesses people
Delivery and Communion (while Pszlmxsxiv9 Adaccedentes, is sung)
Prayer of Thanksgiving or post-communion collect
Deacon dismisses people: Missa acta est, or In pace, or other
formula

The Celtic rite of the early 10th century may also be ascertained from extant documents, and this liturgy was largely Gallican but with Roman influence from the 7th century onwards.  
            Liturgy of the Word
Introit (not mentioned in missal, but in tracts. Probably sung from
Psalter)
Salutation
Collect (St. Peter's in iii. kal. Julias)
Imnus Angelicas (i.e. the Gloria in excelsis, which may have been
preceded by the Tersanctus or Trisagiori)
Collects (several, including that of the day)
Lection from Old Testament or Apocalypse
Epistle
Collects
Psalm sung antiphonally, followed by collects
Alleluia^ with more collects
Deacon's litany, concluded by collects
Chalice half-unveiled, while Ps. cxli. 2 was sung thrice
Chant, Veni, Domine, sanctificator, omnipotew, et benedic hoc
sacrificium preparatum tibi,, sung thrice
Gospel
Chant, nature of which is obscure
Collects super evangelium
Creed (that introduced into Byzantine rite by the Patriarch Timotheus,
A.D. 51 1 1)

Liturgy of the Upper Room
Offertory : Full unveiling of elements
Ps. Ixxxv. 7, Ostende nobts, meanwhile sung thrice
Offering of paten and chalice together with elevation
Diptychs read, followed by a collect post nomina
Sursum corda (no salutation)
Prayer of Consecration :
Preface (peculiar to this rite Stowe)
Proper Preface inserted rubric in vernacular
Sanctus (sometimes Benedictus qui venit followed Roman)
Post-sanctus collect (akin to Mozarabic for Christmas day)
Canon (closely similar to Roman,2 with a few unimportant
Gallican peculiarities, and with many Celtic saints ; The Te
igitur is preceded by the words : Canon dominions papae Gilasf)
Fraction, with Confession of Faith and Alleluias. The Fraction
was elaborate, normally divided into 5 to 13 pieces in form of
a cross. At Christmas, Easter, and Pentecost into 65 pieces.
Priest assisted celebrant, hence confraction.
Lord's Prayer with protocol and embolism
The Kiss of Peace (formula similar to Mozarabic)
Celebrant's Blessing of people
Commixture, Delivery, Communion: deacon ministering Cup
During celebrant's Communion, Ecce Agnus Dei sung
During people's, antiphons from psalms, &c.
Post-communion thanksgiving, Gratia tibi agimus
Deacon's litany in some earlier rites
Deacon dismisses people : Missa acta est. In pace

            An example of the Roman mass as celebrated roughly a century before Gregory the Great is listed below (C. AD 500), and it is noted for being simple and tight with its words, structure, and ceremonies:
Liturgy of the Word
Introit by two choirs as clergy enter
Kyries
Celebrant's salutation
Collect(s)
Prophecy or Old Testament lection
Antiphonal chant
Epistle
Gradual (Psalm sung originally by one voice)
Alleluia
Gospel, with lights, incense, responses
Dismissal of those not communicating (Greg. Dialog. I. ii. 23)
Liturgy of the Upper Room
Offertory: Collection of elements, spreading of corporal on altar,
preparation of elements for communion, offering of gifts,
admixture, psalm sung meanwhile
Salutation and Sursum corda
Prayer of Consecration :
Preface
Proper Preface
Sanctus
Canon (see pp. 60-3 for text)
Kiss of Peace
Fraction
Lord's Prayer with protocol and embolism
Communion, celebrant first, then people (Psalm sung meanwhile)
Post-communion collect (Thanksgiving)
Dismissal by deacon

The simplicity was seen also in that there was no elevation at the Words of Institution of the elements, and no “bell-ringings, censing, lights, genuflections”. Thus we see the original Roman Rite was quite simple and not elaborate as is typically thought, that occurred only after it was borrowed in the subsequent years. But soon this austerity and things being done decently and in order was lost, in part due to the importance placed on seeing the Blessed Sacrament elevated, becoming the “ritual centre of the Mass”. Attention became focused on the visible action with the consecration of the host the most important part, and the rite itself was mostly inaudible in time.
After Constantine the people partook of Communion infrequently, and by the 6th century the minimum requirement was at Christmas, Easter, and Pentecost, and then in 1215 it was reduced to just Easter, around which time the cup was also withdrawn from the laity. The Nicene Creed was added in the 11th century in the liturgy in Rome. Prayers at various points by the celebrant also emerged and were made part of the service officially by 1570. Also services were still conducted in Latin, which overtime the laity lost use of that language and so the service was not understood by them. In the 9th century the idea was already put forward that the purpose of the liturgy was to visually bring to remembrance the passion of the Christ, with enactments of many events of Scripture/redemptive history both prior to and during the life of Christ. The Council of Trent made the Roman mass uniform in 1570. The development by this date is seen in the following:
The Liturgy of the Word
Introit sung by choir
Kyne eleison (ninetold)J
Entry of ministers
Private preparation of ministers at altar steps (said secretly) :
Invocation, In nomine Patris . . .
Ps. xliii, with v. 4 as antiphon, and Gloria
Ps. cxxiv. 8.
Confiteor and Misereatur of celebrant to ministers
Confiteor and Misereatur of ministers to celebrant
Versicles and responses from psalms
Collects Aufer a nobis and Oramus te
Blessing of incense, and censing of altar and ministers
Gloria in excekis said secretly by celebrant and sung by choir
Salutation and collects of the day, after which celebrant says the
the Epistle and gradual silently
Epistle, sung by subdeacon ; response, Deo gratias
Gradual sung by choir
Tract or Sequence (if any) sung by choir, while are said
Prayers and Preparation for the Gospel:
Munda cor meum
jfube Domme benedicere
Dominus sit in corde tuo
Salutation, announcement of Gospel, and by celebrant
ministers' response, Gloria tibi Domine
Gospel recited in low tone
Response by ministers, Laus tibi Christe (all in underline done by celebrant)
The same repeated, except for celebrant's blessing added, by deacon
Gospel, with lights and incense, sung by deacon, and responses sung by ministers
Preacher goes to pulpit :
Intimations
Bidding Prayers
Epistle and Gospel read in vernacular
Sermon
Nicene Creed sung as Gloria in excelsis
Salutation and bidding to prayer, but no prayer

The Liturgy of the Upper Room
Offertory : Psalm verses sung throughout while celebrant proceeds
secretly
Offering of bread : collect, Suscipe sancte Pater
Admixture of water to wine : collect, Deus qui humanae
Offering of chalice : collect, Offerimus tibi
Prayers, In spiritu humilitatis and Veni sanctificator
Blessing of incense : Per intercessionem
Censing of elements : Incensum istud
Censing of altar, saying Ps. cxli. 2-4
Censing of ministers
Washing of celebrant's hands, while he recites the Lavabo,
Ps. xxv. 6-12, with Gloria
Oblation, Suscipe sancta Trinitas, Orate fratres (said audibly),
and Suscipiat Dominus
Secrets (collects corresponding to those of the day)
Salutation and Sursum corda (sung)
Prayer of Consecration :
Preface and Proper Preface sung by celebrant (then Sanctus
and Benedictus said audibly)
Sanctus, sung by choir while the celebrant proceeds with the
Canon, said silently (except for raising of the voice at Nobis
quoque), bell rung to announce beginning
Elevation, with bells and incense at Words of Institution and
singing of Benedictus qui venit
Canon concludes with ecphonesis
Lord's Prayer sung by celebrant, with protocol and embolism
Pax and Fraction and Commixture
Agnus Dei said by celebrant, then sung by choir
Celebrant's Communion (while Agnus Dei is sung) :
Collect, Domine Jesu Christe
Kiss of Peace to clergy
Collects, DomineJesu Christefili Dei m?/and Perceptio corporis tui
and Centurion's words, Domine non sum dignus (said audibly)
He receives the Bread, saying Words of Delivery
Thanksgiving, Ps. cxvi. 12-13
He receives the Cup, saying Words of Delivery
(Communion of the people, in one kind, vdth Ecce Agnus Det,
Words of Delivery and Domine non sum dignus : very rare at
High mass)
Communion Psalm sung by choir
Cleansing of chalice
Collects Quod ore sumpsimus and Corpus tuum Domine
Covering of Chalice
Salutation and Post-communion collects
Deacon's salutation and dismissal of people
Collect, Placeat tibi
Blessing of People, Benedicat vos
Last Gospel, John i. 1-14, and response Deo gratias

We now come to the rights of the Churches of the Reformation, from 1520 to the present day. By this time period, the mass was culminated with the miracle of transubstantiation and the people could not participate in communion more than once per year, and even then everything was conducted in a foreign tongue and with much ceremony, sermons being rare due to many priests being illiterate and offices being sold to the highest bidder. The Reformation did not immediately bring better forms to worship, the Reformers being largely ignorant of anything but what they were accustomed to, so they simply took out what they thought was incompatible with their theology, though they did establish some lasting principles. Maxwell turns to five schools of Reformational liturgical revision: Luther in Germany; Zwingli at Zurich; Bucer at Strasbourg; Calvin at Strasbourg and Geneva; and Cranmer in England.
            Luther reformed the Lord’s Supper by emphasizing the body of Christ meeting with the Lord. This meant Communion was no longer something performed on stage and unintelligible, but was participated in, by, and with the people (and they partook of both bread and wine). He initially wanted daily communion but ended up settling on weekly communion, and that became the early Lutheran tradition. He pushed against the idea that Mass was a re-sacrificing of Christ, but did understand that it was showing the believer’s participation/union with Christ and His sacrifice. He stripped some things away from the RCC worship but didn’t make changes as thoroughly or as quickly as might be hoped:
Liturgy of the Word
Introit or German hymn
Kyrie eleison
Salutation and collect
Epistle
German hymn
Gospel
Apostles' Creed (Elements prepared now)
Sermon or homily
Liturgy of the Upper Room
Paraphrase of Lord's Prayer
Exhortation
Recitation of Words of Institution, accompanied by Fraction and
Deliver}7
Communion, hymns sung meanwhile
Post-communion collect
Aaronic Blessing

The Zwinglian Rites and view of the Lord’s Supper is not merely a memorial as some have supposed. Maxwell says that Zwingli differed from Calvin and Luther in that he was more rationalistic and analytical, emphasizing God’s transcendence far more than His complementary immanence. Zwingli was not in favor of frequent communion and downplayed the Real Presence of Christ compared to Luther and Calvin, as he did not see Communion as a normal/regular/routine part of Christian worship. He went much further than Luther in revising the Roman Catholic Mass but also only celebrated the Lord’s Supper four times a year, during Easter, Whitsun, autumn, and Christmas. He also originated taking communion while sitting. His German structure is as follows:
Liturgy of the Word
Ordinary Morning Service (a form of mattins), concluding with
Sermon and a Confession of sins
Offertory : preparation of elements
Invocation: cln the Name of the Father, &c. ?
Collect
Epistle
Gloria in excelsis (said antiphonally)
Gospel
Apostles' Creed

Liturgy of the Upper Room
Exhortation
Fencing of the Table
The Lord's Prayer  
Prayer of humble access
Words of Institution, with :
Fraction
Ministers' communion
Delivery, and communion of the people
Post-communion psalm (said antiphonally)
Post-communion collect
Dismissal
Bucer brought a Zwinglian influence to Strasbourg and its Reformers, a compromise between Luther and Zwingli’s view. References and prayers to Mary and the saints were gutted, and the general theology of Roman Catholicism was removed. The rite was now said audibly and followed as below:
Liturgy of the Word
Preparation at the altar steps:
Invocation: 'In the Name, &c.'
Confession of sins, the local Confiteor revised
Absolution: i Tim. i. 15
Scripture Sent. (Ps. cxxiv. 8: 'Our help, &c.') from celebrant's
private preparation in old rite, said as he goes to alter
Salutation and response
Introit, said not sung
Kyries
Gloria in excelsis
Salutation and collect
Epistle
Gospel
Nicene Creed, said
Liturgy of the Upper Room
Offertory:
Preparation of elements
Exhortation1
Salutation and Sursum corda
Preface and proper preface
Sanctus and Benedictus qui venit
Lavabo and related collect
Canon (said standing, with upraised hands) :
Intercessions
Prayer for quickened life
Words of Institution, with elevation
Anamnesis
Lord's Prayer, with Matthean doxology
Pax
Agnus Dei
Communion collect, Dominejesu Christe fili Dei vivi
Celebrant's communion
Deliver}and People's communion (in both kinds, if desired)
Two post-communion collects
Salutation and response
Blessing, Benedicat vos
Of note is that in time the Latin titles were replaced with German titles, the Epistles and Gospels began to be read in course/verse by verse and of greater length, and sermons are regularly preached, at times on each of the lections. Confession was made when preparing for Communion, and the minister would pronounce absolution (p. 103ff. in the PDF shows this). Bucer’s influence increased and there was some variation over time, with prayers becoming longer and more prolix, to the detriment of the service. By 1537 only the black gown and cassock were retained of the priest’s garb, and by 1537 communion was not celebrated weekly in each parish church but only at the cathedral. Fewer holy days are observed apart from Sunday/The Lord’s Day. There was a 4 AM service, an 8 AM service, and a 5 PM service (these times pushed back an hour in winter), and after the 8 AM service time of catechetical type instruction was given to the children in the 10 Commandments, the Apostle’s Creed, and the Lord’s Prayer, except when it was too cold. Four times a year in the parish churches general congregational catechization was held morning and afternoon concerning “the central facts of the Christian faith, the Creed, the 10 Commandments, the Lord’s Prayer, the Sacraments, and the issues of all these in daily life and works.”  
After Bucer, certain alterations occurred to the liturgy, including the replacement of the Gloria in excelsis and the Kyries with metrical psalms and hymns. The Sanctus and the Benedictus qui venit, almost as old as the church itself, were replaced with more general thanksgivings for Christ’s work. The only lections kept were those from the NT, and the sermon length was increased to a full hour. But Maxwell summarizes the German rites of Strasbourg as the service that becomes the norm for Sunday morning worship in Reformed Churches, Maxwell noting that though the eucharist is no longer central, the service is immensely richer in content and broader in scope.
CALVIN’S FRENCH RITES AT STRASBOURG AND GENEVA
Maxwell notes that Calvin desired “to restore the eucharist in its primitive simplicity and true proportions – celebration and communion – as the central weekly service, and, within this service, to give the Holy Scriptures their authoritative place. The Lord’s Supper, in all its completeness, was the norm he wished to establish” (112). Calvin became minister of French exiles at Strasbourg from 1538-1541. Calvin adopted the worship in Strasbourg/Bucer almost word for word, and the French were permitted to celebrate communion monthly by the civil magistrates. Calvin designed worship to reflect the early/ancient church. Below is a side-by-side comparison of Bucer’s German rite of 1537, Calvin’s in Strasbourg, and on the right, Calvin’s at Geneva:

                       
Maxwell notes that the middle column, Calvin’s at Strasbourg, more likely reflects his mind, as the magistrates in Geneva wanted things more simple and meager. Calvin was concerned to restore the eucharist in its “primitive simplicity and completeness as the weekly worship of the Church. The Holy Scriptures, read in course and expounded, were given their central place as in the ancient rites; but he was concerned to restore not the Scriptures alone, but also weekly communion” (116). Alas, Calvin was never able to celebrate communion weekly due to the magistrates of Geneva, and so the Zwinglian precedence of separating the eucharist from the regular Sunday worship prevailed in Geneva. In fact, in Geneva only quarterly communion was permitted.
Calvin’s practice was followed as the norm of worship in the Calvinian churches in France, Switzerland, South Germany, Holland, Denmark, and other places. The pattern is largely the same in many Reformed churches today.
THE REFORMED RITES AND THEIR SUCCESSORS IN SCOTLAND
The Scottish used the Second Prayer Book of Edward VI, revised under the influence of Calvinists, where the Northern Scottish particularly accepted it. Knox liked it, except that he objected to kneeling at communion, and his co-pastor John Rough said that it was in agreement at all points with Scripture. The nobles and barons of the Reforming party in 1557 entered a covenant and adopted the Book of Common Prayer of 1552. This book was superseded by the Forme of Prayers or Book of Common Order in 1562 concerning the sacraments, and for all purposes in 1564. John Knox liked Calvin’s liturgy and teaching, and John Knox’s Genevan Service Book shows that the form of prayers is derived directly from Calvin’s service book La Forme des Prieres.  But new intercessions and a new prayer of consecration are listed, similar to Calvin’s but not identical. Below is an example of what was contained in the services, of the Order for the Celebration of the Lord’s Supper:

Here we see the Eucharist presented simply yet with true devotion and catholicity. The Liturgy of the Word, though few in parts, was lengthy, the lection and sermon usually taking an hour or longer to complete. The sermon was an exposition and exhortation based upon the lection. An epiclesis for the Lord’s Supper was likely added later. Sometimes in Scotland wafer or unleavened bread was used, and in some cases water was mixed in with the wine. Communion was practiced only quarterly in Scotland in the large towns, and less frequently in the country. The biggest reason for this was the shortage of ministers available, though the habit had been to participate once a year or less, and the restrictions in Geneva may have affected them as well, despite Calvin’s wishes. In the 20th century monthly communion and even weekly communion can be found in Scotland, but quarterly is also found. Communion was received sitting as the people came forward and sat at a long Communion Table, but that custom has all but disappeared, and the Bread and Wine are now taken by the elders to the people in their pews.
Like with Calvin, even when communion was not celebrated, much of the liturgy of the eucharist was retained, omitting only that which pertained to consecration and communion. Only the Church of Scotland officially abandoned the Christian Year, but in practice many parishes still observed chief festivals. Knox was very influential in the worship of Scotland, taking what he discovered at Geneva to them. Eventually in Scotland, the solemn league and covenant was ratified, signed with the English rebels. This was just prior to the Westminster Assembly, at which the Scottish had a handful of very influential delegates who could participate in discussion but could not vote. In 1645 the Westminster Confession of Faith along with The Form of Presbyterial Government and the Directory for Public Worship was accepted by the Scottish Assembly. The Directory was influenced by the Book of Common Prayer and the Forme of Prayer, giving precise directions on the order and content of the service. Here is an example of the Liturgy of the Word and the Lord’s Supper:
This format was quite detailed and long, and was only accepted with great difficulty, in part due to Independents. In fact, within just years the Creed was nixed and the doxology after the psalms. The Lord’s Prayer was no longer recited. Many of the readings fell into disuse and various overtures had to be introduced to try to revive it into the mid 1800’s. Soon the worship became very basic, with Communion partaken of very infrequently, and just a few psalms sung, a long concluding prayer after the sermon, one more psalm and a benediction. In the last century or so music in the Church of Scotland has revitalized and prayers vary from spontaneous to prepared. In the 1920’s various books on prayer and order were written for the Church of Scotland, which Maxwell says enriched their worship. The new liturgical order, says Maxwell, was:

Designed for brevity, and is somewhat shorter than the customary celebration in a parish church, where there may be more singings. But it indicates the richness of the Scottish liturgical tradition, and both its centrality and independence. The principal weakness of this rite is the attenuated oblation, and the absence of any self-oblation ; the Consecration Prayer is also devoid of the note of unity with the whole Church, and closing with the epiclesis, it is too abrupt in its conclusion. 1 The rite is, nevertheless, noble and adequate, rich in its content, felicitous in its expression, simple yet dignified in its action.


The Reformed Rites and their Successors in England
In English Puritanism there was the Presbyterians and the Independents/Congregationalists. Until the Westminster Directory, the Puritans preferred the Forme of Prayers. The services were simple and the book was used as a guideline only. Worship was at a low point in the 18th and 19th centuries in Presbyterian and Congregationalist churches in England, where prayers were lengthy and didactic, everything being stripped down mostly to just the sermon. More modern liturgy in England for Presbyterians follows the Directory of Public Worship (first edition 1898). The Congregationalists, by their very nature of church government, vary from church to church greatly, though in 1920 the Book of Congregational Worship was introduced as a mere guideline.
Methodists in England likewise had widely divergent worship, from the barest Puritan service to Anglican evangelical style service. Like the English churches, communion was celebrated monthly or quarterly. Wesley made a few changes to the Book of Common Prayer, which is followed by Methodists all over the world.
The English Rite in the Book of Common Prayer
The Church of England developed its own worship tradition, but was closer to Calvinism in doctrine, and liturgically was more Lutheran. In the 1540’s it was decreed that a chapter from the OT and the NT should be read on holy days, and by 1543 communion in both kinds were given to the people. An Order of Communion and First Book of Homilies was produced. The first Book of Common Prayer was the work of Cranmer, assisted by Ridley and others, and survives in use to the day of Maxwell. Roman Catholic elements were removed from the service, and the service in general was simplified. An example follows:
 


                  Sadly, this rite never became accepted by the Church of England. An impoverished prayer book was substituted.          The preparation for the Lord’s Supper was made entirely subjective. Many of the prayers and other portions were deleted. Yet this book too was not used here, but only in Scotland, as Mary returned and restored the old Roman rite. But in 1559 the Book of Common Prayer was revised and used in England under Queen Elizabeth. The Book of Common Prayer has not had any successful serious revision since 1662. In the Church of England today, the rite is celebrated in widely divergent ways.
THE SCOTTISH LITURGY IN THE SCOTTISH BOOK OF COMMON PRAYER
The Book of Common Prayer was completed in 1637, similar to the English rite of 1549 but with revisions. But the Scottish rejected the book as an English book, expressing the “views of a high-handed monarch and a tactless archbishop” (155). Various revisions have taken place in the Episcopal Church in Scotland over the most recent centuries, but is as follows (see next page).  Maxwell briefly examines some other, lesser known and more recent, liturgies, such as The United Church of Canada, but he mentions them mostly in passing, and so will not be covered here.
Maxwell now turns to section five of his book, called The Christian Cycle of Prayer. He mentions Quire (choir, the part of the church where the prayers were said) offices and relates it to the Jewish practice, and speaks of how in the book of Acts it is mentioned that the 3rd, 6th, and 9th hours are mentioned as hours for Christians to pray. These prayers are observed and established in large churches by the 4th century, though it likely began privately. This increased and were especially observed by the monastics. The purpose was “the orderly recitation of the Psalter and reading of the Bible, and the sanctification of time, day and night, by prayer and praise.” Luther altered these practices at the Reformation, trying to fit them for daily use as public morning and evening services. In Calvinist churches they disappeared altogether, replaced with private prayers, clergy and people meeting on certain days, Catechism on Sunday afternoons, weekly studies of Scripture, etc. Cranmer adapted Luther’s pattern, making them into two daily services in the first Book of Common Prayer of 1549. Over the years, the structure between Anglican Morning Prayer and the present Sunday morning worship of the Scottish Church is revealed (as of the late 1920’s).  
Addressing “The Christian Year” Maxwell says that Easter was soon observed as a day that stands out from others in the churches. Lent, the forty days prior to Easter to symbolize the Lord’s fast in the wilderness, followed. Christ’s birth was celebrated, though the date varied. Advent, the four Sundays prior to Christmas, was soon celebrated. Other events between the celebration of the Lord’s birth and resurrection followed.
Maxwell then concludes his book by examining some various forms of prayers that the church has utilized down through the years. Maxwell argues that the Reformed in the 16th century threw out much good in the forms of prayers until very recently. He mentions the eucharistic prayer, the most “dignified and noble form of prayer”. It is introduced by the Sursum Corda, echoing it and moving to thanksgiving. He turns to litanies, probably adapted from synagogue worship, comprised of intercessory remarks, each followed by the people’s response of Kyrie eleison. Luther compiled a German litany, and Cranmer an English one. Some litanies are not as formal as written prayers, and so some degree of spontaneity is possible. Maxwell then mentions bidding prayers, comprising a series of biddings followed by silent prayer (biddings that God would hear one’s prayer is an example). These are very brief. Maxwell then mentions collects, brief, direct, concise prayers consisting of five parts, Invocation; Relative Clause; Petition; Statement of Purpose; Conclusion or Doxology. Acts 1:24-25 serves as an example:

'Thou, Lord, which knowest the hearts of all men ; shew whether of these two thou hast chosen, that he may take part of this ministry and apostleship, from which Judas by transgression fell.'

An example from the Book of Common Prayer is given as well. Maxwell turns to suffrages, chosen from the Psalter in the form of versicles and responses. The first part of an Anglican Morning Prayer below is an example:

'Minister. The Lord be with you.
Answer. And with thy spirit.
Minister. Let us pray.
Lord, have mercy upon us.
Christ^ have mercy upon us.
Lord, have mercy upon us.
Then the Minister, Clerks, and people shall say the Lord's Prayer with a loud voice.


The people’s amen is also encouraged by Maxwell. It is found in Scripture and means “so be it”. When the people say it and not the minister alone, it connects the worshiper with the prayer and keeps their attention. Maxwell says the loss of this in some reformed churches is “but a perversion of worship which should cease.” Extemporaneous prayer is where the minister prays in his own words. Maxwell notes that even this has a form to it, as all prayer must. Maxwell is not in favor of didactic or teaching prayer, as it is a “degradation of worship.” Maxwell says extemporaneous prayer should be simple, brief, and that it is demanding, requiring much familiarity with Scripture.